After the demise of the Second Triumvirate, Augustus restored the outward façade of the free republic, with governmental power vested in the Roman Senate, the executive magistrates and the legislative assemblies, yet he maintained autocratic authority by having the Senate grant him lifetime tenure as commander-in-chief, tribune and censor. A similar ambiguity is seen in his chosen names, the implied rejection of monarchical titles whereby he called himself Princeps Civitatis (First Citizen) juxtaposed with his adoption of the title augustus.
On 16 January 27 BC the Senate gave Octavian the titles of augustus and princeps. Augustus is from the Latin word augere (meaning to increase) and can be translated as \"the illustrious one\". It was a title of religious authority rather than political authority. His name of Augustus was also more favorable than Romulus, the previous one which he styled for himself in reference to the story of the legendary founder of Rome, which symbolized a second founding of Rome. The title of Romulus was associated too strongly with notions of monarchy and kingship, an image that Octavian tried to avoid. The title princeps senatus originally meant the member of the Senate with the highest precedence, but in this case it became an almost regnal title for a leader who was first in charge. The name augustus was inherited by all future emperors, eventually becoming, at least in practice, the main title of the emperor. As a result, modern historians usually regard this event as the beginning of Augustus' reign as \"emperor\".[f] Augustus also styled himself as Imperator Caesar divi filius, \"Commander Caesar son of the deified one\". With this title, he boasted his familial link to deified Julius Caesar, and the use of imperator signified a permanent link to the Roman tradition of victory.[g] He transformed Caesar, a cognomen for one branch of the Julian family, into a new family line that began with him. 59ce067264